O desenvolvimento do pensamento, mais que um simples processo lógico, desenvolve-se em resposta a desafios vitais. Sem o desafio da vida o pensamento fica a dormir... O pensamento se desenvolve como ferramenta para construirmos as conchas que a natureza não nos deu. (Rubem Alves)

30.9.06

A IMPORTÂNCIA DO DESENVOLVIMENTO SENSORIAL PARA O ALUNO DEFICIENTE VISUAL

Como as crianças deficientes visuais geralmente adquirem seu conhecimento por meio de experiências que não incluem o uso da visão, faz-se necessário que lhes sejam oferecidas oportunidades para desenvolver os sentidos remanescentes:

tato, audição, olfato e mesmo paladar.

No ambiente da escola, o professor pode aproveitar vários momentos e situações para que o aluno identifi que sons, discrimine odores, experimente diversos sabores e diferencie os mais variados materiais, proporcionando, desta maneira, não só para o aluno defi ciente visual, como para todos os alunos, um desenvolvimento sensorial harmonioso que favorecerá tanto o processo educacional, como a orientação e a mobilidade do defi ciente visual.

Audição

Pedir ao aluno que discrimine os diversos tipos de sons existentes:

• Na sala de aula: ventilador, giz na lousa, abrir e fechar cortinas, porta, armário;
• Na secretaria: máquina de datilografi a, gaveta de arquivo, telefone, rádio, relógio, campainha;
• Na cozinha: talheres, copos, pratos, torneira aberta, diferentes fervuras, queimadores de fogão aceso;
• No banheiro; descarga, lavatório, chuveiro;
• No pátio: vassouras e rodos sendo usados na limpeza, baldes enchendo de água, esguicho.

É importante que ele aprenda a discriminar também sons externos: carro, caminhão, ônibus, sirene, pássaros, sons musicais, vozes de animais e outros.

Sempre que possível, pedir ao aluno que localize as fontes sonoras e identifique as pessoas e colegas de seu círculo de amizade, pela voz.

O professor pode, então pedir ao aluno que, localizada uma determinada fonte sonora, dirija-se até ela. Exemplo: uma batida na porta, a campainha do telefone, etc. Isso capacitará o aluno a fazer uso da audição para sua orientação e mobilidade.

Como exercício para que o aluno possa chegar à fonte sonora, o professor pode proceder da seguinte maneira:

Em local sem obstáculos, que pode ser o pátio, o professor deve afastar-se do aluno alguns passos e, falando sempre, pedir que venha até ele. Quando o aluno alcançar êxito, o professor repetirá a experiência, só que, agora, silenciando-se assim que ele começar a andar. Caso o aluno se desvie da direção, o professor deverá falar novamente, até que consiga corrigir o rumo.

É de grande valia que o aluno seja capaz de encher um copo com líquido (de torneira, jarra ou garrafa) sem derramá-lo, apenas utilizando-se da audição.

Tato

Oferecer ao defi ciente visual a maior variedade possível de materiais como: tipos diferentes de papel, de tecido, de madeira, de couro, de amostras de tapetes, de fi os, de plásticos, de lixas, etc.. Com estes materiais, pedir-lhe que discrimine espessura, tamanho e textura: grosso, fi no, pequeno, grande, liso, rugoso, macio, áspero, etc..

Apresentar ao aluno sólidos geométricos feitos em madeira ou em cartolina, linhas de vários tipos em relevo e coladas em cartão, desenhos simples de objetos conhecidos contornados com lã ou barbante. Permitir que o aluno explore à vontade o material, identifi cando-o e relacionando-o com aquilo que é do seu conhecimento e de seu ambiente.

Fazer com que o aluno perceba as várias sensações térmicas: quente, frio, morno, gelado, etc.

Proporcionar condições para que possa identifi car a consistência de: óleo, pasta, creme, cera, graxa, bem como de diferentes tipos de alimentos crus e cozidos. Ele deverá ser capaz de reconhecer todos estes produtos, utilizando-se, também, de um tipo de instrumento, como por exemplo, uma espátula ou um talher.


Todas estas atividades serão de grande valia para a adequação social do aluno, pois possibilitam o desenvolvimento de habilidades necessárias às diferentes situações de sua vida diária.

Olfato

Pedir ao aluno que identifi que vários produtos, pelo cheiro (odor). Exemplos: odores fortes: gasolina, álcool, naftalina, inseticida, desinfetante, cera, etc. A seguir, produtos com odores mais suaves: sabonete, talco, pasta de dentes, perfume; odores de alimentos: frutas, carnes, café cebola, alho, etc.

Solicitar ao aluno que procure reconhecer, pelo olfato, algumas dependências da escola como: cozinha, banheiro, jardim e, no trajeto entre sua casa e a escola: farmácia, açougue, barbearia, posto de gasolina, padaria, etc.

Importante:

Como o sentido do olfato satura-se rapidamente, deve-se ter o cuidado de não realizar exercícios muito prolongados.

Paladar

Permitir que o aluno experimente alimentos com os principais sabores: amargo, doce, azedo, salgado, picante, não havendo necessidade de degluti-los.

Sentidos integrados

Acompanhar o aluno pelas dependências da escola, pedindo-lhe que identifique os vários estímulos, procurando localizar a fonte. Estes estímulos podem ser: vozes, ruídos, perfumes, odores, etc.

Fazendo uso de todos os sentidos, ele deve aprender a localizar-se no espaço físico conhecido e locomover-se com segurança. Pedir que informe como está percebendo o ambiente: tipo de piso (terra, cimento, madeira, grama, cerâmica),ventilação, espaço, número de pessoas, etc.

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